Tag: Injury

To Specialize or Not to Specialize? Assessing the Risks and Rewards of Playing Only One Sport

By: Premier Sport Psychology

A common concern of parents with young athletes is whether they should have their child specialize in a particular sport. Athletes have been specializing earlier and earlier in their athletic careers in order to attempt to achieve high or elite athletic status. Some parents feel pressure from coaches to keep their kid training for one sport day in and day out in order to keep up with traveling or competitive teams—if they don’t, they run the risk that their child will be a step behind everyone they are competing against. As a result, sport becomes more structured and scheduled while being less about fun and spontaneity. While parents and coaches have the best intentions, specializing, especially early on, could have adverse effects on the child’s athletic future. So, instead of asking, “At what age should my child specialize at one sport?” parents should instead ask, “What are the benefits of specialization compared to being a well rounded athlete in multiple sports?”

For starters, the impact of specialization depends on the sport. Specializing in gymnastics is beneficial considering that gymnasts’ athletic careers start in their mid-teens. With that being said, specializing at an early age in order to play in college may work against the athlete. In Changing the Game Project’s article, “Is it Wise to Specialize,” they list multiple research-backed traits that multi-sport athletes have compared to one-sport specialized athletes. Some of these include, “better overall skills and ability,” and “smarter, more creative players.” Not to mention that the majority of collegiate athletes played more than one sport growing up. Playing multiple sports not only makes your athlete more well rounded as a person, but can also help them athletically in the long run.

While research has shown that playing multiple sports helps make athletes more well rounded, early sport specialization also has its benefits. These benefits include success early on in a sport (which can be helpful within certain sports as discussed about gymnastics earlier), and short-term access to better coaches, programs, and competitions. However, there are many risks associated with specialization in sports. One of the main concerns is injury. A study at Loyola University found that athletes who specialized were 70-90% more likely to be injured. Other negative affects of specialization early on are burnout, adult physical inactivity, stress, lack of enjoyment, and quitting.

So when should your child specialize in one particular sport? If you were basing your decision off of research the answer would be never—they can always be doing something more than just their one favorite sport; however, ultimately it is up to the athlete and the parents. Even so, don’t follow the trends regarding when your athlete “needs” to specialize by. Focus on having a well-rounded athlete who can split their time between multiple activities instead of just one—this will prepare them to be a well-rounded person in all that they do outside the world of athletics.

For further information on specialization, click here and here.

Alexa-Jane Hoidahl

When is Enough Enough? The Costs of Playing Through Injuries

By: Premier Sport Psychology

In the 1996 Olympics gymnast Kerri Strug sprained her ankle on her first vault landing. All she needed to earn a gold medal was a clean vault, which was exactly what she did after spraining her ankle: Strug performed a vault with an injury, landing on one foot. Competing or performing with an injury is common in world of athletics at any level. Strug’s story, as well as many other athletes who have overcome adversity, hold not only a special place in history but also in the eyes of society. The athletes are looked up to as heroes for sacrificing their bodies for the glory of a win. This mentality contributes to the pressure many athletes face to play through an injury at all costs, and negatively contributes to their bodies and mental health. Hiding injuries and/or playing through the pain is not only hurting the injury and prolonging it, but could also lead to more serious problems later on.

From athletes’ perspectives, they are training to control and master their bodies. When injuries occur they may view it as just another part of the body that needs to perform a certain way. An injury may also cause them to view their body as something to fight against. The injury may seem like a form of betrayal because their body is not cooperating with the demands, but in reality the body is telling the host that it needs a break.

Athletes tend to avoid their injuries because they do not want to take time off. For professional athletes, playing through injuries is the norm—their sport is their job, and if they have to take time off, many feel as though they aren’t fulfilling their responsibilities. This, as well as the threat of being replaced, factors in to playing while they are injured. It’s reasonable that they play through injuries; they have everything riding on their athletic abilities. As a result, if the injury is something that won’t end their career, they will risk their health for the reward. However, even though athletes play through the pain very often at this level, they are aware of potential risks. Athletes view those who can accept that they are injured as brave. Former NBA player Alvin Williams stated, “They’re the real courageous ones, because they’re the ones who are going to be able to come back. They’re setting an example that they’re more than an athlete. And, paradoxically, that’s what’s going to make the best athlete, the best organization, the best everything.” Athletes know that playing on an injury is not the best option yet this is not what they are taught or encouraged to do.

In a study of 3,000 athletes, coaches, and parents, 42% of youth athletes said that they have hidden injuries so they could play, which could lead to more serious complications as they grow up. Kate Carr, the president of Safe Kids Worldwide sums it up perfectly, “The awareness we have about injuries and the risk to our children is not matching the behavior that we’re seeing on the field.” Although winning is an important aspect of sports, it should not be something to risk children’s health for. The restriction requiring athletes to be pulled if they have a suspected concussion and the reduction of contact and checking in youth sports are both steps in the right direction for the reduction of injuries as a whole. Now the task is to create an atmosphere where it is the norm to report injuries.

In “Playing through the pain: Psychiatric risks among athletes,” Drs. Samantha O’Connell and Theo C. Manschreck look at the vulnerability in athletes regarding psychiatric health. One of the factors that drives this is how athletes express pain (which for many cases they don’t). Hiding physical injuries could be the gateway into athletes hiding other health issues as well, specifically related to mental health. Athletes may fear that seeking help will make them look weak and threaten their status as an athlete or with their team. This could lead to further problems with their mental health. O’Connell and Manschreck state that playing through pain may be influenced by pressures from coaches, scholarships or parents, but ultimately it has to do with the pressures the athletes puts on themselves to achieve.

When athletes view injury as a weakness both to their identity as an athlete and their performance, this can cause greater health issues regarding injury as well as mental health. Advise your athletes to sit it out if they are in doubt. While sitting out may not be fun for a game or two, it is better than never playing again or having it affect you or your athletes off the field. This view of injury in professional sports may not change soon, but you have the ability to change how you and/or your athletes view injury.

Alexa-Jane Hoidahl

The Pressure Behind the Pain

By: Premier Sport Psychology

Most athletes, at some point in their athletic career, encounter an injury to some extent. The intensity and duration of the injury may vary significantly from one situation to the next, but there seems to be an overriding theme to injuries. It is seemingly undeniable that with any physical injury there is a set of challenges an athlete will face, and these challenges include a mental component. Not only is it frustrating for athletes to battle back from an injury, but also the pressure to do so in a hurry makes a bad situation worse. USA Today released an article that tackles this topic from the standpoint of an NFL quarterback. It could be argued that the most important position in football is the quarterback. If you do not agree with that, you could most certainly agree that they are at least one of the top most important positions. Tony Romo, quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys, currently faces the physical and mental challenges presented with an injury. Romo took a painful knee to the back that caused a great deal of pain to a location that is injury-prone already. After taking a pain killing injection, he returned to play in overtime. Coach Jerry Jones relayed the message that Romo was facing a “function of pain tolerance” and that “nothing medically would prevent him from playing” in upcoming games. Knowingly or not, coach Jones put a substantial amount of pressure on his quarterback for his teammates, fans, and all of the NFL to hear.

In any situation of physical injury, the dependence on physicians and athlete’s collaboration in final decision-making is crucial–regardless of sport, age, gender, or position. The philosophy behind this opinion is rooted in one single fact: the athlete is the only one who knows how they feel, and physicians are the ones that are able to help them determine what is best for their health. This pressure is placed on athletes of all ages, whether it is parents pushing them back in the game or coaches questioning their toughness. In reality, toughness may have nothing to do with it. You may have the toughest person in the world, but even they would not be able to play a game of football with a broken leg. The challenges that injuries present are great enough, but to add additional pressure on an athlete to return can have countless bad outcomes. So how do you help an athlete through injury?

Ask them questions–and genuinely care to hear the answers.

Most athletes that struggle with injury appreciate someone who cares to see them getting better. By asking them how their recovery is progressing and if there is anything you can do to help reminds them that they have a support system.

Be conscious of your judgments.

It is natural to make judgments in any situation. It is what helps us interpret the world around us and the opinions we have about it. The ability to recognize yourself making judgments and to determine if they are justified is a great skill. In this case, know that you may have an opinion about an athlete and their injury, but at the end of the day you are not inside their body and mind.  No one can tell someone else how they feel.

Alleviate the pressure, do not apply it.

The last thing athletes want is pressure to get back in the game. More often than not, the athlete wants more than anyone to be back in. Reminding them that they are missing out on the sport they love is of no help. Allow them to process the injury without convincing them that they are weak. If anything, remind them that there is no pressure in rushing back. Ironically enough, this might get them back faster.

These small skills are a few that can be useful when encountering those dealing with injury. The next time you encounter an injury, whether it be your own or someone else’s, remember to practice being conscious and not critical. The pain of injury is enough in itself–look to help heal it, not hinder it.

Bethany Brausen


The Mental Side of a Physical Injury

By: Premier Sport Psychology

Imagine this: You are an athlete – and not just any athlete – an elite athlete.  You are a highly successful player in the sport of your choosing.  The highlight of your day includes stepping onto the field, ice, or court.  The sport drives you, and it serves as your passion for countless years.  Many of your best memories come from your sport, but so do a few of your worst.  After suffering from 5 concussions, you have limited your ability to focus for more than a ten-minute span.  Having a dim light on causes you pounding headaches.  Feeling faint and dizzy has become apart of your physiology. And worst of all, the thought of getting back into the sport you can’t live without shoots a bout of anxiety and fear ripping down your spine.  It does not take an athlete to understand the effects of an injury due to sport.  It does however, take the right knowledge to understand how to best treat those injuries.  A study published by the Journal of Sport and Health Science in 2012 open the topic by saying:

“Sport injuries frequently have profound negative consequences on the physical health of sports participants.  They also have the potential to cause a great deal of psychological disturbance through increased anger, depression, anxiety, tension, fear, and decreased self-esteem.  Sport injuries often result in an immediate imbalance and disruption to the lives of the injured athletes including loss of health and achievement of athletic potential.”

The study is quick to note that while there are serious physical implications that follow an injury, there are serious, and often times more detrimental, psychological effects.  Laura Reese, Ryan Pittsinger, and Jingzhen Yang sought out to decipher what steps psychologists can take to help restore the most crucial component in recovery: an athlete’s mind.  The study targeted populations of injured competitive and recreational athletes age 17 years and older by using interventions commonly used in sport psychology.  The interventions included imagery, goal-setting, relaxation, micro-counseling, written disclosure, and acceptance and commitment therapy.  The interventions showed promising results.  Guided imagery/relaxation was associated with improved psychological coping and reduced re-injury anxiety.  Psychological techniques such as micro-counseling, acceptance and commitment therapy, and written disclosure demonstrated effectiveness in reducing negative psychological consequences, improving psychological coping, and reducing re-injury anxiety. While seemingly small, these improvements may be exactly what an athlete needs to get back to where they want to be.

The reality of injuries in sports is that too often the process of recovery turns a blind eye to the single strongest operating force in our bodies: our brains.  While we work daily to subdue concussion symptoms, heal a broken bone, or undergo surgery to repair a tendon, we forget that the component driving that recovery in the first place lies in our head.  The encouragement of psychological repair must be reinforced by psychologists, doctors, social support and the athletes themselves.  Using interventions such as those demonstrated in this study may provide the foundation needed to get athletes back in competition both more timely and safely.  The importance of mental stability during a physical injury could not be more crucial.  You would never allow an athlete to go back to competition with a broken collarbone.  They are simply not ready.  Think twice before sending an athlete – or yourself – into competition before mentally ready.  You may not be able to see the injury, but that is an injustice of equal offense.


By Bethany Brausen



Effectiveness of psychological intervention following sport injury. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 1, 71-79.